The adverbial modifier


The AM is a secondary part of the sentence which modifies a verb, an adjective or an adverb. According to their meaning the following kinds of AM exist: 1) The AM of time (See you tomorrow); 2) The AM of frequency (We see each other often); 3) The AM of place and direction (I was there); 4) The AM of manner (He spoke with a concentrated view); 5) The AM of attendant circumstances (They went never to return); 6) The AM of degree and measure (It's quite good; It weighs a kilo); 7) The AM of cause (We stayed in, it being cold outside); 8) The AM of result (consequence) (I'm too fond of her to leave her); 9) The AM of condition (I wouldn't have achieved this but for her support); 10) The AM of comparison (I play the guitar worse than Paul); 11) The AM of concession (Though afraid he went on); 12) The AM of purpose (They've built a field for playing football).

The AM can be expressed by: 1) An adverb (He spoke suspiciously); 2) A noun with or without accompanying words (They walked for hours); 3) A prepositional phrase (They went down the road); 4) A noun, pronoun, adjective, infinitive, participle, or prepositional phrase with a subordinating conjunction (If necessary, when talking to you, he'll say that he's a better singer than I); 5) A participle or a participial phrase (When invited, he became happier); 6) Absolute constructions – the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (We went out, the day being sunny), the Nominative Absolute construction (He was leading, his family happy for him), the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction (He was sitting, with his hands trembling), the Prepositional Absolute construction (He was running, with fire in his eyes); 7) A prepositional phrase or construction with a gerund (They looked at each other without speaking); 8) An infinitive, an infinitive phrase, or an infinitive construction (They rose to go to the kitchen).